Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Resources: APA

Information on using APA / MLA /Citation Builders & Managers / Writing Resources

APA Guides and Resources

APA Logo

Additional Resources

What is DOI -- Direct Object Identifiers

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) are unique alphanumeric codes used to identify and link to articles.  New citation rules for APA require that DOIs be listed, if available, in place of the database availability phrase previously used. 

 If a DOI is not available, the journal publisher's URL is used.  



Here are some common formatting errors to avoid: 

  • Spacing: Citations should be double-spaced.
  • Hanging indent: Indent all but the first line of each citation (the opposite of how you indent a paragraph!).
  • Capitalization: For book or article titles, only capitalize the first word of the title, and subtitle. Also capitalize proper nouns.
  • Italicization: Book titles and journal titles with the volume number need to be italicized; do not italicize article titles.
  • DOI: For electronic materials, if you have a doi#, you do not need to include the database name.

APA Template

Open the template that is linked below, save it to your own document name and location and start typing your paper.